Boeing’s new 787 Dreamliner passenger jet may have a serious security
vulnerability in its onboard computer networks that could allow
passengers to access the plane’s control systems, according to the U.S.
Federal Aviation Administration.
The computer network in the Dreamliner’s passenger compartment,
designed to give passengers in-flight internet access, is connected to
the plane’s control, navigation and communication systems, an FAA
The revelation is causing concern in security circles because the
physical connection of the networks makes the plane’s control systems
vulnerable to hackers. A more secure design would physically separate
the two computer networks. Boeing said it’s aware of the issue and has
designed a solution it will test shortly.
“This is serious,” said Mark Loveless, a network security analyst with Autonomic Networks, a company in stealth mode, who presented a conference talk last year on Hacking the Friendly Skies
(PowerPoint). “This isn’t a desktop computer. It’s controlling the
systems that are keeping people from plunging to their deaths. So I
hope they are really thinking about how to get this right.”
Currently in the final stages of production, the 787 Dreamliner is Boeing’s new mid-sized jet, which will seat between 210 and 330 passengers, depending on configuration.
Boeing says it has taken more than 800 advance orders for the new
plane, which is due to enter service in November 2008. But the FAA is
requiring Boeing to demonstrate that it has addressed the
computer-network issue before the planes begin service.
According to the FAA document published in the Federal Register (mirrored at Cryptome.org),
the vulnerability exists because the plane’s computer systems connect
the passenger network with the flight-safety, control and navigation
network. It also connects to the airline’s business and
administrative-support network, which communicates maintenance issues
to ground crews.
The design “allows new kinds of passenger connectivity to previously
isolated data networks connected to systems that perform functions
required for the safe operation of the airplane,” says the FAA
document. “Because of this new passenger connectivity, the proposed
data-network design and integration may result in security
vulnerabilities from intentional or unintentional corruption of data
and systems critical to the safety and maintenance of the airplane.”
The information is published in a “special conditions” document that
the FAA produces when it encounters new aircraft designs and
technologies that aren’t addressed by existing regulations and
An FAA spokesman said he would not be able to comment on the issue until next week.
Boeing spokeswoman Lori Gunter said the wording of the FAA document
is misleading, and that the plane’s networks don’t completely connect.
Gunter wouldn’t go into detail about how Boeing is tackling the
issue but says it is employing a combination of solutions that involves
some physical separation of the networks, known as “air gaps,” and
software firewalls. Gunter also mentioned other technical solutions,
which she said are proprietary and didn’t want to discuss in public.
“There are places where the networks are not touching, and there are places where they are,” she said.
Gunter added that although data can pass between the networks, “there
are protections in place” to ensure that the passenger internet service
doesn’t access the maintenance data or the navigation system “under any
She said the safeguards protect the critical networks from
unauthorized access, but the company still needs to conduct lab and
in-flight testing to ensure that they work. This will occur in March
when the first Dreamliner is ready for a test flight.
Gunter said Boeing has been working on the issue with the FAA for a
number of years already and was aware that the agency was planning to
publish a “special conditions” document regarding the Dreamliner.
Gunter said the FAA and Boeing have already agreed on the tests that
the plane manufacturer will have to do to demonstrate that it has
addressed the FAA’s security concerns.
“It will all be done before the first airplane is delivered,” she said.
Loveless said he’s glad the FAA and Boeing are addressing the issue,
but without knowing specifically what Boeing is doing, it is impossible
to say whether the proposed solution will work as intended. Loveless
said software firewalls offer some protection, but are not bulletproof,
and he noted that the FAA has previously overlooked serious
“The fact that they are not sharing information about it is a
concern,” he said. “I’d be happier if a credible auditing firm took a
look at it.”
Special conditions are not unusual. The FAA publishes them whenever
it encounters unusual issues regarding a plane’s design or performance
in order to communicate on record that it expects the manufacturer to
address the issue. It’s then up to the manufacturer to demonstrate to
the FAA that it has solved the problem. Gunter said the FAA has issued
eight special conditions on the Boeing 787, but that not all of them
pertain to the plane’s computer systems.